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Life’s not that simple.” I want to point them to this image showing just how unsimple non-monogamy is. Ex.– The Promise of Promiscuity– Bonobo Beginnings7. Making a Mess of Marriage, Mating, and Monogamy– Marriage: The “Fundamental Condition” of the Human Species? Paternity Certainty: The Crumbling Cornerstone of the Standard Narrative– Love, Lust, and Liberty at Lugu Lake– On the Inevitability of Patriarchy– The March of the Monogamous10. The fine print distinguishing humans from the other great apes is regarded as “wholly artificial” by most primatologists these days. Also, for an excellent review of this material, see Fagan (2004). This is a very personal and accessible account of his time living with them (and ultimately, taking a wife there).
If it’s highly personal, extremely complex, changing all the time, and really nobody’s business but yours, why answer the question at all? )– Professor Pinker, Red in Tooth and Claw– The Mysterious Disappearance of Margaret Power– The Spoils of War– The Napoleonic Invasion (The Yanomami Controversy)– The Desperate Search for Hippie Hypocrisy and Bonobo Brutality14. Even if we never slip (and we all do), our inner nature can pull us under at any moment. Boone Abstract Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Ferguson (1995) offers an in-depth analysis of Chagnon’s calculations and conclusions.
If Bill and Hillary had gone on – What Is Evolutionary Psychology and Why Should You Care? A Closer Look at the Standard Narrative of Human Sexual Evolution– How Darwin Insults Your Mother (The Dismal Science of Sexual Economics)– The Famously Flaccid Female Libido– Male Parental Investment (MPI)– “Mixed Strategies” in the War Between the Sexes– Extended Sexual Receptivity and Concealed Ovulation4. Those of us raised in the West have been assured that we humans are special, unique among living things, above and beyond the world around us, exempt from the humilities and humiliations that pervade and define animal life. Here’s a paper that supports our contention that egalitarian social organization is more functional for small scale social groups like those of the EEA (see references to Dunbar’s number) and that more hierarchical power structures emerge when the group gets too big for consensus rule. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Strangely,even though he agrees with this central point made by Power, de Waal barely mentions her work—and only to dismiss her, at that. For more of Ferguson’s views on the origins of war, the following two papers can be downloaded from his departmental web page ( Tribal, “Ethnic,” and Global Wars, and Ten Points on War, which includes a broad discussion of biology, archaeology, and the Yanomami controversy. Washington Post review of Darkness in El Dorado: Jungle Fever, by Marshall Sahlins, Sunday, December 10, 2000, p.
At first blush, this may seem an overstatement, but it’s a truth that should have become common knowledge long ago. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. Pinker’s talk was based upon an argument he presents in The Blank Slate (2002), particularly in the last few pages of the third chapter. You might want to search Sue Savage-Rumbaugh’s talks on bonobos, for example. These questions threaten to recast a great deal of data concerning chimpanzee social interactions—of great interest to de Waal, one of the world’s leading authorities on chimpanzee behavior and a man whose scholarship demonstrates deep respect for critical analysis.19.
Conventional notions of monogamous, till-death-do-us-part marriage strain under the dead weight of a false narrative that insists we’re something else. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable. Here’s an article about a paper demonstrating hormonal differences in how male chimps and male bonobos respond to stress, with chimps gearing up for battle and bonobos chilling out. If you prefer to read Pinker’s remarks, an essay based upon the talk can be found at org/3rd_culture/pinker07/pinker07_7. For a review, see Sussman and Garber’s chapter in Chapman and Sussman (2004).
Just as pope after pope dismissed any cosmology that would remove humankind from the exalted center of the endless expanse of space, just as Darwin was (and in some crowds, still is) ridiculed for recognizing that human beings are the creation of natural laws, many scientists are blinded by their emotional resistance to any account of human sexual evolution that doesn’t revolve around the monogamous nuclear family unit.
Although we’re led to believe we live in times of sexual liberation, contemporary human sexuality throbs with obvious, painful truths that must not be spoken aloud. Ever feel like the victim of a well-intentioned Inquisition? The Ape in the Mirror– Primates and Human Nature– Doubting the Chimpanzee Model– In Search of Primate Continuity5. The natural world lies below and beneath us, a cause for shame, disgust, or alarm; something smelly and messy to be hidden behind closed doors, drawn curtains, and minty freshness. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups Journal of Theoretical Biology Available online 2 June 2010. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation—the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject—may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. In an endnote in his 1996 book, , he writes, “On the basis of her reading of the literature, Power (1991) has argued that provisioning at some field sites (such as Gombe’s banana camp) turned the chimpanzees more violent and less egalitarian, and thus changed the ‘tone’ of relationships both within and between communities. Borofsky (2005) offers a balanced account of the controversy and the context in which it occurred. We shared a common ancestor with two of these apes—bonobos and chimps—just five million years ago. Readers with mental images of Sioux (Lakota) chiefs with eagle-feather war bonnets rippling in the wind should keep in mind that in the generations before first contact with whites, disease spread through many tribes and the arrival of horses brought severe cultural disruptions, leading to conflict between groups that had been at peace previously (see Brown, 1970/2001).25. By comparison, Chagnon’s total time among the Yanomami adds up to about five years. The Spanish word There’s good reason marriage is often depicted and mourned as the beginning of the end of a man’s sexual life. Who wants to share her life with a man who feels trapped and diminished by his love for her, whose honor marks the limits of his freedom? Societies in Pinker’s chart:—The cultivate yams, peanuts, sweet manioc, maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, tuber beans, pumpkins, plantains, tobacco, cotton, banana, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Who wants to spend her life apologizing for being just one woman? The American Medical Association reports that some 42 percent of American women suffer from sexual dysfunction, while Viagra breaks sales records year after year. They also traditionally domesticate llamas and guinea pigs and later the introduced dog, chicken, and pig.—The grow sweet potatoes, taro, bananas, sugarcane, Pandanus nuts, beans, and various leaf greens, as well as potatoes, maize, and peanuts. Even the most ardent defenders of sexuality buckle under its weight, as never-ending bipartisan perp-walks of politicians (Clinton, Vitter, Gingrich, Craig, Foley, Spitzer, Sanford) and religious figures (Haggard, Swaggert, Bakker) trumpet their support of before slinking off to private assignations with lovers, prostitutes, and interns. Hundreds of Catholic priests have confessed to thousands of sex crimes against children in the past few decades alone. While hunting and gathering remain important for some groups, motor vehicles, aluminum boats with outboard engines, guns, and other introduced tools have replaced indigenous techniques.—The staple food is the sweet potato. In his discussion of “our most peaceful age,” he makes no mention of the Rape of Nanking, the entire Pacific theater of World War II (including the detonation of two nuclear bombs over Japan), the Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot’s killing fields in Cambodia, several consecutive decades-long wars in Vietnam (against the Japanese, French, and Americans), the Chinese revolution and civil war, the India/Pakistan separation and subsequent wars, or the Korean war.